When Men Murder Women: An Analysis of 1999 Homicide Data
Females Murdered by Males in Single Victim/Single Offender Incidents
Section One: National Data
When Men Murder Women offers both national and state-by-state statistics from FBI Supplementary Homicide Report data including charts listing the number and rate of female homicides by state and a chart ranking each state by rate. For the top 15 states, data are broken out by: age and race of victim; type of weapon used; relationship of victim to offender; and, the circumstance of the murder. General findings are summarized below. More detailed data on each of the 15 states can be found in Appendix Two.
In 1999 the homicide rate among female victims murdered by males in single victim/single offender incidents in the United States was 1.35 per 100,000. For that year, Nevada ranked first as the state with the highest homicide rate among female victims by male offenders in single victim/single offender incidents. Its rate of 3.38 per 100,000 was two-and-a-half times the national average. Nevada was followed by Alaska (3.06 per 100,000) and Louisiana (2.51 per 100,000). The remaining states that make up the top 15 can be found in Chart One on the following page. For a ranking of all states that submitted data to the FBI, please see Appendix One.
In single female victim/single male offender homicides reported for 1999, nine percent of the victims were less than 18 years old (152 victims) and 10 percent were 65 years of age or older (163 victims). The average age of female homicide victims was 37 years old. Female homicides in which race was identified (1,741 victims) included: 1,098 white females, 582 black females, 45 Asian or Pacific Islanders, and 16 American Indian. Ninety percent (1,543 out of 1,721) of the homicides where the race of the female victim and male offender were known were intra-racial.i Overall, black women were murdered at a rate (3.18 per 100,000) more than three times higher than white women (0.96 per 100,000). Unfortunately, Hispanic ethnicity could not be determined on a national level because of the inadequacy of data collection and reporting. Of the 47 states reporting, only five states met the criteria of having at least one Hispanic female homicide victim and having at least 70 percent of female victims coded as Hispanic or non-Hispanic ethnicity.j Information regarding the five states is offered in Section Three.
Victim to Offender Relationship
The relationship of victim to offender differs significantly between male and female victims of homicide. Compared to a man, a woman is far more likely to be killed by her spouse, an intimate acquaintance, or a family member than by a stranger. More than 11 times as many females were murdered by a male they knew (1,521 victims) than were killed by male strangers (133 victims) in single victim/single offender incidents in 1999.k Of victims who knew their offenders, 60 percent (917 out of 1,521) were wives, common-law wives, ex-wives, or girlfriends of the offenders. Unfortunately, ex-boyfriends cannot be included in the intimate acquaintance analysis because there is no separate designation for ex-boyfriends or ex-girlfriends in the SHR relationship category.
Firearms�especially handguns�were the most common weapons used by males to murder females in 1999. For homicides in which the weapon could be identified, 53 percent of female victims (865 out of 1,647) were shot and killed with guns�more than 63 percent by male intimates. The number of females shot and killed by their husband or intimate acquaintance (546 victims) was more than four times higher than the total number murdered by male strangers using all weapons combined (133 victims) in single victim/single offender incidents in 1999. In homicides where males used firearms to kill females, handguns were clearly the weapon of choice over rifles and shotguns. In 1999, 76 percent of female firearm homicide victims (656 out of 865) were killed with handguns.
The overwhelming majority of homicides among females by male offenders in single victim/single offender incidents in 1999 were not related to any other felony crime. Most often, females were killed by males in the course of an argument�usually with a firearm. In 1999 there were 1,464 incidents in which the circumstance of the homicide between the female victim and male offender in single victim/single offender incidents could be identified. Of these, 87 percent (1,270 out of 1,464) were not related to the commission of any other felony.
Of the non-felony homicides, 62 percent (789 out of 1,270) involved arguments between the female victim and male offender and 52 percent (408 out of 789) of those homicides involved guns. According to the Supplementary Homicide Report data, in 1999 there were 317 women shot and killed by their husbands or intimate acquaintances in single victim/single offender incidents during the course of an argument�nearly one such murder every day of the year.
i) Intra-racial homicides are homicides where the victim and the offender are of the same race.
j) Those locations where the ethnicity was left blank or labeled as unknown did not count toward the minimum of 70 percent of Hispanic ethnicity being determined.
k) These are homicides in which the relationship between the victim and the offender could be identified. According to the FBI's 1999 Supplementary Homicide Report data on females murdered by males in single victim/single offender incidents, the relationship of victim to offender could be determined in 1,654 of 1,750 incidents. In 96 homicides the relationship of victim to offender was "unknown," meaning the reporting police officer was unable to determine at the scene if the victim and offender knew each other or were strangers. According to the July 1992 Journal of Trauma study "Men, Women, and Murder: Gender-Specific Differences in Rates of Fatal Violence and Victimization," local law enforcement agencies generally submit case reports early in the course of their investigation, sometimes before the identity of the offender is known. Although one might assume that most initially unsolved homicides would eventually be determined to have been committed by a stranger, follow-up data from one large metropolitan police jurisdiction (Los Angeles) suggest that a substantial number involve an acquaintance or relative of the victim.
All contents � 2001 Violence Policy Center
The Violence Policy Center is a national non-profit educational foundation that conducts research on violence in America and works to develop violence-reduction policies and proposals. The Center examines the role of firearms in America, conducts research on firearms violence, and explores new ways to decrease firearm-related death and injury.