“Start Them Young” – Endnotes

  1. “Father of Marysville school shooter convicted of gun charges,” Seattle Times, September 29, 2015 (http://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/crime/father-of-marysville-school-shooter-convicted-of-gun-charges/); “’Bang, Bang I’m Dead’: Marysville Shooter Jaylen Fryberg’s Ominous Texts – NBC News,” nbcnews.com, November 20, 2014 (http://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/marysville-school-shooting/bang-bang-im-dead-marysville-shooter-jaylen-frybergs-ominous-texts-n252496); “Death Toll Rises to 5 in School Shooting,” Associated Press, November 8, 2014 (http://www.nytimes.com/2014/11/09/us/death-toll-rises-to-5-in-school-shooting.html); “Second Washington school shooting victim dies after homecoming prince took aim at his friends, family,” Washington Post, October 27, 2014 (http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/morning-mix/wp/2014/10/27/second-seattle-area-school-shooting-victim-dies-after-homecoming-prince-took-aim-at-his-friends-family/); “Marysville school shooting: What more could the community have done?,” Christian Science Monitor, October 26, 2014 (http://www.csmonitor.com/USA/2014/1026/Marysville-school-shooting-What-more-could-the-community-have-done-video); “Tangled Portrait of a Student Emerges in Washington Shooting,” New York Times, October 25, 2014 (http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/26/us/contrasting-portraits-emerge-of-jaylen-ray-fryberg-shooter-at-washington-school.html?_r=0).
  2. “Troutdale police release parts of interviews with father, brother of Reynolds High shooter,” OregonLive, April 6, 2015 (http://www.oregonlive.com/portland/index.ssf/2015/04/troutdale_police_release_31_pa.html); “NRA mouthpiece Wayne LaPierre quiet as Oregon high school shooter revealed to conceal AR-15 rifle in guitar case,” Daily News, June 12, 2014 (http://www.nydailynews.com/news/national/school-shooter-portland-ore-ar-15-report-article-1.1825533); “Reynolds High School shooter Jared Padgett died of self-inflicted wound,” koin.com, June 11, 2014 (http://koin.com/2014/06/11/reynolds-high-school-news-briefing-june-11-2014/); “Reynolds High shooter Jared Padgett ‘showed off about guns,’” koin.com, June 11, 2014 (http://koin.com/2014/06/11/reynolds-high-shooter-jared-padgett-showed-off-about-guns/); “Oregon school shooting: Gunman Jared Michael Padgett known as serious student with interest in military,” The Oregonian, June 11, 2014 (http://www.oregonlive.com/gresham/index.ssf/2014/06/oregon_school_shooting_gunman.html); “Jared Michael Padgett: Troutdale Shooting Suspect Argued With Classmates About Hitler,” Inquisitr, June 11, 2014 (http://www.inquisitr.com/1294499/jared-michael-padgett-troutdale-shooting-suspect-argued-with-classmates-about-hitler/); “Jared Padgett Photos: Reynolds High School Gunman Jared Michael Padgett Facebook Pictures Out,“ Epoch Times, June 11, 2014 (http://www.theepochtimes.com/n3/728899-jared-padgett-photos-reynolds-high-school-gunman-jared-michael-padgett-facebook-pictures/).
  3. “Waseca teen accused in school shooting plot had been planning for months,” Star Tribune, December 17, 2014 (http://www.startribune.com/local/257505631.html#qRWhjsAGA7Oj9pMX.97); “Recording released of Minnesota teen calmly telling police of plans to kill family and set off school massacre,” Daily Mail, June 25, 2014 (http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2668478/Recording-released-Minnesota-teen-calmly-telling-police-plans-kill-family-set-school-massacre.html); “Teen details massacre plot, reveres Columbine killer,” USA Today, June 25, 2014 (http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2014/06/25/teen-plot-bomb/11349075/); “Recording released of Minnesota teen calmly telling police of plans to kill family and set off school massacre,” Daily Mail, June 25, 2014 (http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2668478/Recording-released-Minnesota-teen-calmly-telling-police-plans-kill-family-set-school-massacre.html); “UPDATED: Waseca teen pleads not guilty in mass shooting plot,” Waseca County News, May 12, 2014 (http://www.southernminn.com/waseca_county_news/news/article_e3226229-92a4-5cec-8084-e1f88c297f11.html); “Police: Minnesota teen planned school massacre,” CNN, May 2, 2014 (http://www.cnn.com/2014/05/01/justice/minnesota-attack-thwarted/).
  4. See, for example, the 2013 Violence Policy Center study Blood Money II: How Gun Industry Dollars Fund the NRA (http://www.vpc.org/studies/bloodmoney2.pdf).
  5. NSSF SHOT Business, September/October 1993.
  6. Shooting Sports Retailer, September/October 1998.
  7. “Shooting for a New Audience,” Shooting Sports Retailer, May/June 2007.
  8. General Social Survey (GSS) gun ownership data contained in this report is drawn from the NORC publication General Social Survey Final Report: Trends in Gun Ownership in the United States, 1972-2014, Tom W. Smith, Jaesok Son, NORC at the University of Chicago, March 2015. For a detailed history of gun ownership in the United States as reported by the GSS, see the May 2015 Violence Policy Center report A Shrinking Minority: The Continuing Decline of Gun Ownership in America (http://www.vpc.org/studies/ownership.pdf).
  9. Respondents were asked, “Do you (or does your [husband/wife]) go hunting?”
  10. NSSF Report: Incidence Rate of Hunting With Modern Sporting Rifles, National Shooting Sports Foundation, 2015.
  11. See http://www.chipmunkrifles.com/chipmunk_aboutus.php.
  12. See http://www.crickett.com/.
  13. Ironically, while the company’s Beanie Baby must meet at least four types of federal safety standards – sharp edges and points, small parts, hazardous materials, and flammability – there are no federal safety standards for the domestic manufacture of firearms. For more information, see http://www.vpc.org/regulating-the-gun-industry/regulate-firearms-like-other-consumer-products/.
  14. “Watch an Ad for ‘My First Rifle,’ the Gun a 5-Year-Old Used to Shoot His 2-Year-Old Sister,” Slate, May 3, 2013 (http://www.slate.com/blogs/crime/2013/05/03/crickett_keystone_sporting_arms_watch_an_ad_for_my_first_rifle_the_gun_a.html).
  15. See http://www.littlesportsman.com/.
  16. “Marlin’s New Kid-Friendly Rifles,” NRA Family InSights, January 2, 2014 (http://www.nrafamilyinsights.org/articles/marlins-new-kid-friendly-rifles).
  17. “Children and Guns – An Iowa Fail,” Jews for the Preservation of Firearms Ownership, April 21, 2014 (http://jpfo.org/alerts2014/alert20140421.htm).
  18. “’We wish you peace’: Children of weapons instructor killed in gun range accident make emotional video pledging forgiveness to nine-year-old girl who shot their father,” Daily Mail, September 12, 2014 (http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2754358/We-wish-peace-Children-weapons-instructor-killed-gun-range-accident-make-emotional-video-pledging-forgiveness-nine-year-old-girl-shot-father.html#ixzz3U1IYxDJD).
  19. “Choosing Your Child’s First Gun,” American Hunter, November 16, 2012.
  20. “Choosing Your Child’s First Gun,” American Hunter, November 16, 2012.
  21. As a 2010 article in the NRA’s American Rifleman magazine noted: “The term ‘tactical .22 rifle’ is essentially an oxymoron. It’s unlikely that a single military or police force on Earth uses .22 Long Rifle arms for small-scale combat operations, at least as primary guns. Nevertheless, this burgeoning class of firearms has taken hold in recent years in the civilian market. With origins dating back to the ever-modular Ruger 10/22, perhaps the most accessorized gun on the planet, up through today’s AR-15 look-alikes, these guns have found a welcome place in the cabinets of varmint shooters, beginning marksmen, and of course those who like to shoot all day with inexpensive, readily available ammunition.” “Tactical 22s: A New Class of Rifles,” American Rifleman, November 19, 2010 (http://www.americanrifleman.org/articles/2010/11/19/tactical-22s-a-new-class-of-rifles/).
  22. “Why AR-Styled Rifles Are so Popular,” Shooting Sports Retailer, January 2014.
  23. See http://www.gandermountain.com/modperl/product/details.cgi?i=781756, downloaded September 22, 2015.
  24. Sig Sauer advertisement, Junior Shooters, Summer 2011.
  25. “Rifles for Ruger Rimfire,” Junior Shooters, March 2011 Special Edition.
  26. See https://www.billsgs.com/the-average-joe-archive/214-december-gotm-beretta-arx-160.
  27. “The Best Guns for Smaller Shooters,” Shooting Sports Retailer, April 30, 2015 (http://www.shootingsportsretailer.com/2015/04/30/best-guns-smaller-shooters/).
  28. “The Best Guns for Smaller Shooters,” Shooting Sports Retailer, April 30, 2015 (http://www.shootingsportsretailer.com/2015/04/30/best-guns-smaller-shooters/).
  29. “Henry Repeating Arms: Muddy Girl,” NRA Family, February 21, 2014 (http://www.nrafamily.org/articles/2014/2/21/henry-repeating-arms-muddy-girl/).
  30. “CZ 452 Scout Rifle,” Junior Shooters, Summer 2011.
  31. See http://www.smith-wesson.com/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/Category4_750001_750051_757786_-_757784_757784_image.
  32. In May 2015, Black Forge Weapons was acquired by Invincible Arms of Ohio, see http://invinciblearms.com/news-and-announcements/invincible-arms-acquires-black-forge-weapons/.
  33. “The Best Guns for Smaller Shooters,” Shooting Sports Retailer, April 30, 2015 (http://www.shootingsportsretailer.com/2015/04/30/best-guns-smaller-shooters/).
  34. “Letter from the Editor,” America’s 1st Freedom, December 2004.
  35. “A Word from Your Editor,” Junior Shooters, Spring 2012.
  36. “A Word from Your Editor,” Junior Shooters, Spring 2012.
  37. “A Word from Your Editor,” Junior Shooters, Winter 2012.
  38. Junior Shooters, March 2011 Special Edition.
  39. “Is the Shooting Industry Getting it All Wrong?,” Shooting Sports Retailer, July 31, 2015 (http://www.shootingsportsretailer.com/2015/07/31/shooting-industry-getting-wrong/).
  40. See http://www.juniorshooters.net/aboutus/.
  41. See http://www.juniorshooters.net, downloaded November 13, 2015.
  42. See http://www.juniorshooters.net/aboutus/.
  43. “A Word from Your Editor,” Junior Shooters, Spring 2012.
  44. Founded in 1996, “The International Defensive Pistol Association (IDPA) is the governing body of a shooting sport that simulates self-defense scenarios and real life encounters…One of the unique facets of this sport is that it is geared toward the new or average shooter, yet is fun, challenging and rewarding for the experienced shooter. The founders developed the sport so that practical gear and practical guns may be used competitively.” On its website, IDPA poses the question, “WHY ANOTHER SHOOTING SPORT?,” and answers: “Prior to the formation of IDPA, there was no place to compete and hone one’s skill with equipment designed for & suitable for self-defense (http://www.idpa.com).
  45. “A Word from Your Editor,” Junior Shooters, Spring 2012.
  46. “Why I Love Bushmaster AR-15s…You Should, Too,” Junior Shooters, Summer 2012.
  47. “45 Firearms Developed Specifically for Smaller-Statured or Younger Shooters,” Mossberg press release, June 30, 2014 (http://www.juniorshooters.net/2014/07/06/mossbergs-youth-firearms-and-safety/).
  48. “Adams Arms 14.5-inch Evo Ultralite Piston MSR Upper,” Junior Shooters, Summer 2013.
  49. “Adams Arms 14.5-inch Evo Ultralite Piston MSR Upper,” Junior Shooters, Summer 2013.
  50. “The Mosquito: A Cool .22 With A Sting,” Junior Shooters, Summer 2009.
  51. “Sig Sauer’s Mosquito,” Junior Shooters, Summer 2013.
  52. “Sig Sauer’s Mosquito,” Junior Shooters, Summer 2013.
  53. “Sig Sauer’s Mosquito,” Junior Shooters, Summer 2013.
  54. “Sig Sauer’s Mosquito,” Junior Shooters, Summer 2013.
  55. “Glocks are for Girls,” Junior Shooters, Summer 2009.
  56. “Kids Gear!,” Junior Shooters, Summer 2010.
  57. Junior Shooters, Winter 2011.
  58. Junior Shooters, March 2011.
  59. Junior Shooters, Winter 2011.
  60. Junior Shooters, Spring 2013.
  61. Junior Shooters, Spring 2013.
  62. Junior Shooters, Winter 2011.
  63. Junior Shooters, Spring 2012.
  64. Junior Shooters, Spring 2013.
  65. “NRA’s Magazine for Juniors Goes Digital,” AccurateShooter.com, September 28th, 2011 (http://bulletin.accurateshooter.com/2011/09/nras-magazine-for-juniors-goes-digital/).
  66. See https://membership.nrahq.org/forms/signup.asp.
  67. As of September 23, 2015.
  68. “Ronnie Barrett: High-Caliber Innovator,” December 19, 2013 (http://www.nrafamily.org/articles/2013/12/19/ronnie-barrett-high-caliber-innovator/).
  69. See https://web.archive.org/web/20150221040356/http://www.nrafamilyinsights.org/Kids under “Kids.”
  70. “Test Fire: Thompson/Center HotShot,” NRA Family, January 2, 2014 (http://www.nrafamily.org/articles/2014/1/2/test-fire-thompsoncenter-hotshot/).
  71. Downloaded from http://www.nrafamilyinsights.org/Kids-Under-8-Awesome-Apps on November 13, 2014 and from https://web.archive.org/web/20141129150952/ http://www.nrafamilyinsights.org/articles/nra-gun-guide-app on September 23, 2015.
  72. “My First .22 Pistol,” NRA Family, August 8, 2014 (http://www.nrafamily.org/articles/2014/8/8/my-first-22-pistol/).
  73. On July 20, 2015, the online publication and website NRA Family InSights became the NRA Family website, “designed to cater to the unique needs of American families that own guns, with realistic how-to advice on topics such as safe firearm storage, introducing new shooters and hunters to the sports, outdoor family destinations and entertainment, personal protection tips, historical firearms and figures, gun and gear reviews, news for NRA families, Olympic shooting sports and more.” According to Executive Director of NRA publications Doug Hamlin, “NRA Family was created to serve the millions of NRA families in America. Rather than addressing a specific sport or interest, we’re adopting a holistic approach that includes the needs of mothers, fathers, kids and grandparents who are both eager to learn, and to pass their knowledge on to the next generation.” “NRA Family’s Brand-New Website,” July 20, 2015 (http://www.nrafamily.org/articles/2015/7/20/nra-familys-brand-new-website/).
  74. “Hunting is Safer Than Golf and Most Other Activities (Not to Mention Football, Basketball and Soccer),” National Shooting Sports Foundation press release, December 5, 2011 (http://www.nssf.org/newsroom/releases/2011/120511.cfm?print=X).
  75. Understanding the Impact of Peer Influence on Youth Participation in Hunting and Target Shooting: Executive Summary, Hunting Heritage Trust and National Shooting Sports Foundation, 2012.
  76. “A Parent’s Guide to Recreational Shooting for Youngsters,” National Shooting Sports Foundation, 2014. Also included in the document is a pledge for children to sign which includes the promise that “I will not go snooping or allow my friends to go snooping for guns in the house.”
  77. Understanding Activities that Compete with Hunting and Target Shooting, 2011 Comprehensive Consumer Study, Executive Summary, National Shooting Sports Foundation, 2012.
  78. Understanding Activities that Compete with Hunting and Target Shooting, 2011 Comprehensive Consumer Study, Executive Summary, National Shooting Sports Foundation, 2012.
  79. Understanding Activities that Compete with Hunting and Target Shooting, 2011 Comprehensive Consumer Study, Executive Summary, National Shooting Sports Foundation, 2012.
  80. Labeled “An Initiative for the Future of Hunting,” Families Afield (http://www.familiesafield.org/), founded by NSSF, National Wild Turkey Federation, and the U.S. Sportsmen’s Alliance, “is an education and outreach program to help states create hunting opportunities for youths, so that more families may enjoy America’s greatest outdoor tradition together.” The National Rifle Association and the Congressional Sportsmen’s Foundation are also “coalition partners” in the program. According to NSSF, “Since its inception, 35 states have passed new laws aimed at removing barriers and making it easier for new people to get into the field and try hunting” (http://www.nssf.org/hunting/youth/). The bulk of the program’s efforts have focused on reducing minimum age requirements for hunting by children and eliminating the need for more rigorous licensing and training for novice hunters. On the program’s website under “Get Involved,” NSSF warns “Hunter Numbers are Declining,” stating, “For every 100 adult hunters today, only 69 youth hunters are coming up to take their place,” while under the heading “Focus on Youth,” the organization stresses that “Youngsters are Key.”
  81. Understanding Activities that Compete with Hunting and Target Shooting, 2011 Comprehensive Consumer Study, Executive Summary, National Shooting Sports Foundation, 2012.
  82. Understanding the Impact of Peer Influence on Youth Participation in Hunting and Target Shooting, Executive Summary, Hunting Heritage Trust and National Shooting Sports Foundation, 2012.
  83. Understanding the Impact of Peer Influence on Youth Participation in Hunting and Target Shooting, Executive Summary, Hunting Heritage Trust and National Shooting Sports Foundation, 2012.
  84. Understanding the Impact of Peer Influence on Youth Participation in Hunting and Target Shooting, Executive Summary, Hunting Heritage Trust and National Shooting Sports Foundation, 2012.
  85. Understanding the Impact of Peer Influence on Youth Participation in Hunting and Target Shooting, Executive Summary, Hunting Heritage Trust and National Shooting Sports Foundation, 2012.
  86. Understanding the Impact of Peer Influence on Youth Participation in Hunting and Target Shooting, Executive Summary, Hunting Heritage Trust and National Shooting Sports Foundation, 2012.
  87. “The Gun Industry’s Deadly Addiction,” Rolling Stone, February 28, 2013 (http://www.rollingstone.com/politics/news/the-gun-industrys-deadly-addiction-20130228#ixzz3bShTEHM4).
  88. “Is the Shooting Industry Getting it All Wrong,” Shooting Sports Retailer, July 31, 2015 (http://www.shootingsportsretailer.com/2015/07/31/shooting-industry-getting-wrong/).
  89. “Shooters: How Video Games Fund Arms Manufacturers,” Eurogamer.net, January 31, 2013 (http://www.eurogamer.net/articles/2013-02-01-shooters-how-video-games-fund-arms-manufacturers).
  90. “The gun gamer’s dilemma,” Gun Nuts Media, March 25, 2015 (http://www.gunnuts.net/2015/03/25/the-gun-gamers-dilemma/).
  91. All typos or grammatical errors in original text.
  92. Perhaps recognizing the risks that come with turning what shooters have “seen on the screen into a reality,” under the heading “Our Products Are Not For the Unjust” on its website the company offers this disclaimer: “Let us make this plain – if you are a morally-deprived, violent individual who is interested in purchasing our products to do harm, please do not buy from us. Firefield products cater to independent, free-thinkers who strive to live a life of honor, purpose and meaning. Firefield works hard to embrace that spirit. Each product is built on a foundation of promoting self-reliance, love for our country and the importance of protecting our family. We understand that life is constantly moving, and our customers need the necessary tools to realize their full potential and complete each task with principle and integrity. By joining the Firefield Legion, you are part of an elite group that is responsible, ethical and edgy, and loves to keep it real in any situation” (http://www.fire-field.com/about.html).
  93. “Always Shooting for More: National Shooting Sports Foundation builds ranks of young shooters, hunters,” Junior Shooters, Volume 1, 2007.
  94. “Competition Shooting 101: 3-Gun,” The Truth About Guns, April 8, 2011 (http://www.thetruthaboutguns.com/2011/04/foghorn/competition-shooting-101-3-gun/).
  95. “Competition Shooting 101: 3-Gun,” The Truth About Guns, April 8, 2011, (http://www.thetruthaboutguns.com/2011/04/foghorn/competition-shooting-101-3-gun/).
  96. “Competition Shooting 101: 3-Gun,” The Truth About Guns, April 8, 2011 (http://www.thetruthaboutguns.com/2011/04/foghorn/competition-shooting-101-3-gun/).
  97. “3-Gun Tactical Match,” Cleburne County Shooting Club, Heber Springs, AR, downloaded September 24, 2015 (http://www.ccscar.com/3gun.htm).
  98. “Competition Shooting 101: 3-Gun,” The Truth About Guns, April 8, 2011 (http://www.thetruthaboutguns.com/2011/04/foghorn/competition-shooting-101-3-gun).
  99. “So, You Think You Want to Try 3-Gun,” Junior Shooters, Spring 2012.
  100. “FNH Has All 4 Guns for 3-Gun!,” Junior Shooters, Summer 2011.
  101. According to FN’s website, “Early 2004, United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) issued a solicitation for a family of Special Forces Combat Assault Rifles, the so-called SCAR, designed around two different calibers but featuring high commonality of parts and identical ergonomics. FN Herstal took part in the full and open competition and released prototypes of a brand new family of weapons within timeframe taking advantage of our long-standing firearms know-how” (http://www.fnherstal.com/primary-menu/products-capabilities/rifles/general/product/182/232/182/1/_/fn-scarR-l-std.html).
  102. “Why I Love 3-Gun!,” Junior Shooters, March 2011 Special Edition.
  103. The federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) can fully exercise its existing statutory authority to exclude from importation all semiautomatic assault rifles as “non-sporting” weapons pursuant to 18 USC §925(d)(3) (a provision of the 1968 Gun Control Act) and also exclude the importation of assault weapon kits and parts sets. This policy was first implemented in 1989 by the George H.W. Bush administration in response to drug wars and mass shootings in the U.S. The Clinton administration strengthened the import rules in 1998 in response to efforts by the gun industry to evade the ban, but the policy was essentially abandoned by the George W. Bush administration with limited activity since.
  104. “Junior Prizes in Place for 3 Gun Nation Tour,” Junior Shooters, 2011 Special Edition.
  105. In an in-depth investigation published in 2013, The New York Times reviewed hundreds of child firearm deaths and found that unintentional shootings occur roughly twice as often as federal records indicate because of idiosyncrasies in how such deaths are classified by authorities (for example, an unintentional shooting being classified as a homicide). According to the Times, “The undercount stems from the peculiarities by which medical examiners and coroners make their ‘manner of death’ rulings. These pronouncements, along with other information entered on death certificates, are the basis for the nation’s mortality statistics, which are assembled by the National Center for Health Statistics, a division of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Choosing among five options – homicide, accidental, suicide, natural or undetermined – most medical examiners and coroners simply call any death in which one person shoots another a homicide.” “Children and Guns: The Hidden Toll,” The New York Times, September 28, 2013 (http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/29/us/children-and-guns-the-hidden-toll.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0).
  106. Source, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention WISQARS database.
  107. Source, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention WISQARS database, additional calculations by Violence Policy Center.
  108. Source, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention WISQARS database.
  109. Michael L. Nance, MD, Brendan G. Carr, MD, MS, Michael J. Kallan, MS, Charles C. Branas, PhD, and Douglas J. Wiebe, PhD, “Variation in Pediatric and Adolescent Firearm Mortality Rates in Rural and Urban US Counties,” Pediatrics, Volume 125, Number 6, June 2010.
  110. Renee M. Johnson, PhD, MPH, Catherine Barber, MPA, Deborah Azrael, PhD, David E. Clark, MD, and David Hemenway, PhD, “Who are the owners of firearms used in adolescent suicides?,” Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, December 2010.
  111. Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Means Matter (http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/means-matter/means-matter/case-fatality/).
  112. Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Means Matter (http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/means-matter/).
  113. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “What Do Parents Need to Know to Protect Their Children?” (http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/acclpp/blood_lead_levels.htm).
  114. Some recent evidence even suggests that there is a strong link between exposure to lead and criminal activity, see for example: Kevin Drum, “America’s Real Criminal Element: Lead,” Mother Jones, January/February 2013 (http://www.motherjones.com/environment/2013/01/lead-crime-link-gasoline); Jessica Wolpaw Reyes, “Environmental Policy as Social Policy? The Impact of Childhood Lead Exposure on Crime,” National Bureau of Economic Research Working Papers, May 2007 (http://www.nber.org/papers/w13097); and, Rick Nevin, “Understanding international crime trends: The legacy of preschool lead exposure,” Environmental Research 104 (2007) 315-336 (http://pic.plover.com/Nevin/Nevin2007.pdf).
  115. Trumpeter Swan Society v. Environmental Protection Agency, 774 F.3d 1037 (D.C. Cir. 2014).
  116. David C. Bellinger, PhD, MSc, et al, “Health Risks from Lead-Based Ammunition in the Environment – A Consensus Statement of Scientists,” March 22, 2013 (http://escholarship.org/uc/item/6dq3h64x#page-1).
  117. Violence Policy Center and Environmental Working Group, Poisonous Pastime: The Health Risks of Shooting Ranges and Lead to Children, Families, and the Environment, May 2001 (http://www.vpc.org/graphics/poison.pdf) and Lead Pollution at Outdoor Firing Ranges, Environmental Working Group, companion study to Poisonous Pastime (http://www.vpc.org/publications/lead-pollution-at-outdoor-firing-ranges/).
  118. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Prevention Tips” (http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/tips.htm).
  119. “Loaded With Lead: Part 1,” Seattle Times, October 17, 2014 (http://projects.seattletimes.com/2014/loaded-with-lead/1/).
  120. “Loaded With Lead: Part 1,” Seattle Times, October 17, 2014 (http://projects.seattletimes.com/2014/loaded-with-lead/1/).
  121. “Loaded With Lead: Part 3,” Seattle Times, October 20, 2014 (http://projects.seattletimes.com/2014/loaded-with-lead/3/).
  122. See http://www.m4carbine.net/showthread.php?157264-is-3-yrs-old-too-young-to-help-dad-clean-ar/page2.
  123. See http://www.healthychildren.org/English/safety-prevention/all-around/Pages/Gun-Safety-Keeping-Children-Safe.aspx.
  124. Renee M. Johnson, PhD, MPH, Catherine Barber, MPA, Deborah Azrael, PhD, David E. Clark, MD, and David Hemenway, PhD, “Who are the owners of firearms used in adolescent suicides?,” Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, December 2010.
  125. See http://w3.4-hshootingsports.org/Kids’N’Guns.php.

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